A paper written in March 2008, just as the outrage over the ZTE-NBN scandal and the Jun Lozada abduction began dying down. This paper applies Brian Martin’s “Political Backfire” model to the Jun Lozada abduction and urges social movements to not “rely on the ‘spontaneous’ nature of sweeping social movements,” as “relying on the ‘spontaneity’ of a movement is simply another way for us to snub the responsibility of planning for the movement, when, in reality, planning is what creates the conditions for such spontaneity to occur.”

Jun Lozada and the Political Backfire Process: Understanding and Preempting the Administration’s Actions to Further the Social Movement for Reform


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